NOTE [1] - “Building System of the Pyramids” by Pierre Crozat published by Canevas Editor (1997), ISBN n°2-88382-065-1.


NOTE [2] - They are dated from the 4th dynasty, under the Ancient Empire. The three great ones are located on the plateau of Giza, near Cairo, the greatest and the most famous “marvel of the world” being Pharaoh Cheops' one (147 metres height).

NOTE [3] - Herodotus, Greek historian (5th century BC) - “the Inquiry”- Book II - articles 125 and 126, Gallimard Editions (1964).

NOTE [4] - Diodore of Sicily, Greek historian (1st century BC) - “Birth of Gods and Men” - Book I- article LXIII - Les belles lettres Editions - La roue à livres Collection (1991) - Translation: M.Casevitz page 77 and 78.

NOTE [5] - The “mechanical” theories: trestle of M.Strub-Roessler, lift of L.Croon or the oscillating elevator of G.Legrain.

NOTE [6] - The “ramp” theories: frontal ramp of J-P. Lauer, helicoidal ramp of G. Goyon, lateral ramp of R. Stadelmann or slot-in ramp of D. Arnold, eminent contemporary Egyptologists.

NOTE [7] - The “mixed” theories: represented by J. Kérisel and J-P. Adam.


NOTE [8] - Technological context defined by the previous and contemporary achievements such as the small boat of Cheops.


Note [9] - These blocks serve as padding for the obstruction of the ascending corridor. They were discovered by the sap of Al Mamoun in 827. Evidently they were in bigger numbers and had first a counterweight function, they were manoeuvred many times in the Great Gallery, which explains the presence of this trammel.

Note [10] - These monoliths are wrongly considered arches of discharge, whereas only the chevron-patterned superior device has this function.

Note [11] - Furthermore the layout of those raising monoliths (made of granite because of its higher bending resistance), far from being a mistake, is lighter filled space combined with empty space than a massif made of limestone.

Note [12] - The angle of the pyramid is function of the ratio height/half of the base which equals 1.25 (and not 1.2727 which is the root of the golden section, as it is claimed by some people).

Note [13] - The interlaying of angular stones is a recommended device in masonry which gives a greater solidity. As it happens here, it is not a building mistake, but it is rather imposed by the building system itself.

Note [14] - Auguste Choisy (1841-1909), son of an architect, French polytechician, engineer graduated from the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, publishes "L'Art de bâtir chez les Egyptiens" (1904)-Edouard Rouveyre, Publisher: "pyramids are built by successively adding layers of stone on the sides of a central 'little' pyramid." (p 99). He is the first one to schematize, in an intuitive manner, the building by layers and the onionskin-like structure, without ever demonstrating it.

Note [15] - Of course, to model is not to build and virtuality is not reality, however to model allows to conceptualize and to understand. This approach, coming from the Tradition, is used by the Companions of Duty, and is fundamental in stereotomy which permits the apprehension of volume.


Note [16] - “bomides”: small altar, socle, pedestal, elevated platform, table, entablature.

Note [17] - “crossaï”: corbel, crenel forming stairs.


Note [18] - Remains of quarries that it is impossible to deny and necessary to integrate in any schema of explanation.

Note [19] - Scientific Geological Bulletin - Researches on the natural fracturing of rock 1969-1972. “Method to study the natural fracturing of rock associated with a variety of structural models” by Michel Ruhland. Research team associated with the CNRS “Structural Geology and tectonic analysis”. Institute of Geology at Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg.
Contradicting what can have been said or written by some renown Egyptologists, the three Great pyramids are not located according to the Dog constellation, neither is their orientation determined by the heliacal rise of Sirius. The axis of the fold, determined by the presence of the great faults, is NE-SW, which results in the fact that the diagonal diaclases and therefore the pyramids will be oriented NS and/or EW.

Note [20] - See the aerial photography shot by Marilyn Bridges and published in her book “L'Égypte vue du ciel” p 40. (1996)- Editions du Seuil.


Note [21] - It is in fact not surprising to notice that the term “ziggourat” (siqquratu) has a “s.q.r.” root which means “to be high” or even “to raise” and that it is the same Hamito-semitic root than “Saqqarah” since it deals with the same shape, could we infer that it also has to do with the same building system? It however needs to be verified.

Note [22] - Archeology of the prehistoric buildings “Dolmens for the Deads” Roger Joussaume 1985 Editions Hachette. All the dolmens in the world seem to have used this system, most of the time on a more or less mastered circular plan, however the dolmen of la Joselière in Pornic (Loire Atlantique, France) has the particularity to have been built on a square plan and to have two, maybe three parées, to the extend that it prefigures from a long time the upcoming step-pyramid.

Note [23] - Step-pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara is the most famous, it has supposedly been built by architect Imhotep. J.Ph. Lauer has been working for almost 70 years on this site without being able to come up with a satisfactory building explanation. It probably had 7 steps. It is from the analysis of this pyramid that Richard Lepsius will define the “accretion”, we suggest the “accretion-raising”, since the accretion is only motivated by the will to raise the building. However the correlation suggested by R. Lepsius, between the length of the Pharaoh's reign and the volume of the pyramid keeps whole its value. But it is also possible to consider that more than one king participated in the erection of the same building. This would explain most of the questions raised by the pyramid of Meidum.

Note [24] - Georges Ifrah “Universal story of numbers” (1981-1994) Editions Robert Laffont (p 394). The same way, the additional arithmetic learn by Pythagorus from the Egyptians, and that the Greek civilization will later deny and that will later be re- established by the Moderns, who will deduce from it the basics of contemporary Mathematical Theories, is only an adding game of series and sequences fit into each other.